A transformer is an electrical device which is employed to either increase or decrease the levels and currents in an electric circuit. In a transformer, the electromagnetic energy is transformed from one state to another. Usually, there are usually two sets of winding: a primary winding and a secondary winding. In addition to the primary winding, the transformer may have a single winding or may have several windings.
In transformers, there are mainly three types: low voltage, high voltage, and hybrid. A transformer may be a closed loop or an open wound one. A closed loop is one in which there is no passage of electric field through the core of the transformer. Open wound transformers have a good safety factor but are comparatively less efficient than the hybrid type. High voltage and hybrid transformers possess the following characteristics:
These transformers have several advantages. The first advantage is that these transformers do not need an extensive infrastructure. These devices can be set up at a place where there are no power supply and no electric distribution. Also, these devices are extremely light in weight and hence can be transported from one place to another easily. The second advantage is that these transformers consume little energy to operate and hence do not create any hazardous impact on the environment. These devices can also handle the overload currents and hence have an excellent performance.
The third advantage is that these transformers do not create any noise pollution in the surroundings. The electricity passes through the wire coils and then the magnetic field produced by the magnets cancels the applied electric field. The generated electricity is then routed to the main line. The advantage here is that there is no excessive noise created due to the movement of the wires.
Fourthly, it is an ideal apparatus to convert AC voltage to DC voltage. It can easily handle the heavy alternating current and hence is capable of handling a higher load. To ensure that the system does not become damaged, the time-varying magnetic field produced by the coil near the earth’s magnetic pole should be maintained. This is where the safety valve is inserted to prevent the flow of excessive electricity. These transformers have the following common specifications; they have to have a current capacity of 1500 watts, the maximum electrical power produced in a single day, a minimum rotation frequency of 3000 rpm and an overload tolerance of around 0.1% over the rated current capacity.
Fifthly, these transformers are used in power plants for smooth and safe transition of AC voltage from the main power grid to distribution grids. This helps in saving a lot of energy as these transformers do not allow the generation of alternating current by itself. Rather, they permit the generation of direct current by energizing the motor, which in turn moves the large turbine. The high voltage is then distributed to the distribution grids, while the low voltage is supplied to the load centers.
Sixthly, these devices can also be used for the purpose of supplying alternating electrical energy to automotive equipment such as engine parts, ignition systems, lights, fans, pumps, fan belts, etc. It provides a direct electrical connection to the device and permits the generation of alternating voltage by the electric motor. The most important advantage is that the power supply to an automobile can be altered according to the changing demands of the driver. On the other hand, transformers can be used for residential applications for supplying alternating electrical energy in low voltage manner.
Seventhly, the present world has seen the invention of a number of different devices which are capable of converting the energy in the air into electricity. The air-to-electricity transformer or wind-to-electricity transformer is one such example. This is capable of converting wind into mechanical energy with the help of a variable-frequency drive system. Similarly, the water-to-electricity transformer can be used to convert the pressure in the water into electricity. Similarly, there is the geothermal pump-turbine which is capable of heating water and cooling air by using the heat from the surface of the earth.
An electricity transformer is a device that takes the AC voltage, turns it into DC current and then changes it back to AC. The device that does this, chirping away with alternating magnetic field energy as it goes is known as a step-down transformer. Let us have a closer examination on how it works! First we need to understand how a transformer works and how AC electricity passes through it. When an AC voltage is applied to one side of a step-down transformer, the magnetic field of that side will align with the induced electric field of the other side.
There are two types of step-down transformers. One of them is the physical one in which there is a permanent magnet on one side that induces electric currents as the electricity passes through. The second type of step-down transformer is the induction one where the permanent magnet is induced into a coil or a cavity. Here too, the induced electric current is used to induce motion in a coil or in some other medium.
In the above-detailed operation, a third party is involved. It is the step-down transformers’ primary coils which make contact with the induction coils on the other sides of the feed line. This is done so as to reduce the amount of energy that goes into the secondary winding. The power dissipated in this manner is then routed to the different panels of the building. The entire process is controlled by controlling the frequency of the AC signal being passed through the system.
When a step-down transformer is being designed, its primary and secondary windings are wound on one side like a rope. This design allows for the power of the coil to be wound down while the energy which is derived from the second windings is routed to the cooling fins on the other side. The design here entails that the winding of the primary winding gets reduced when the energy is derived from the secondary winding, hence the name ‘step down’. The energy that is extracted from the cooling fins reduces the size of the coil and hence the transformer is smaller.
A fourth type of small transformer is the magnetic flux transformer, which is also known as the non-lineal type. This particular type only has a single winding with two copper coils. The energy does not go through the metallic shells of the wires and thus the transformer is smaller in size. The reason for the smaller size is the smaller number of turns in the second coil. The electrical current has to pass through the metallic shell twice before it is sent to the output.
These are just some of the common types of small transformers. The most common however is the induction charger orator. These are widely used in almost all types of industrial processes. Induction transformers work by absorbing electromagnetic energy coming from an alternating current and converting it into direct current. These can be very useful for power plants, factories, and any other place that need a large amount of electrical currents. Although the initial cost of these transformers is quite high, they pay off once they are installed and your electricity is cleaner and much cheaper.
The best transformer to buy is the one that is suited for the application you need it for. If you are looking to convert high voltages then the best transformer to buy is the magnetic windings, or induction chargers. If you are looking to lower the voltage at high frequencies then the best transformer to buy is the switching transformers. And lastly if you want to control the electrical current, then you should use the synchronous rectifiers. All of these transformers work great, and you can see their influence in almost all industrial sectors.
Since we are talking about electricity transformers, let us end the article by answering the last question you might have in mind – do electrical currents produced by electricity cause harm to the environment? Do they cause pollution? Fortunately, the answer is no, and even though there are no perfect devices yet to prevent or reverse the effect of power, the continuous research being done on this issue by various government organizations proves that the future of power will be completely green. With this being said, all those people who are still skeptical about getting a transformer for their homes should just try to have one, and the rest should just go on believing in the wonders of transformer.