Effects at high frequencies are the result of direct current passing through an insulated conductor. The conductors may be constructed of metal, copper or some other metal, although thin metal rods work best for this purpose. An electrical current that passes through an insulator produces a field that is different from the electric field that exists in a pure insulator. There are different effects at high frequencies, and the amount of power that is required to alter one of these fields depends on the frequency that is being affected.
One of the main effects of currents at these frequencies is skin effect. It is the formation of a thin film on the surface of the conductor when an electrical current passes through it. When the current is in a perfect conductive case, the effect is called a Faraday Plate. In other cases the area where the current travels through the film becomes damp or allows current to leak into the surrounding space. This is called an insulator.
The electrical fields that develop at frequencies above about 2500 MHz are referred to as adverse effects. These interfere with various communications systems including mobile phones, radio, television and other electric devices. This problem is usually not a problem unless the device in question is sensitive to these frequencies. Some examples of sensitive appliances are radar detectors, Global Positioning Systems, cell phones, laptop computers and cordless phone transmitters. Some other devices that are affected are police radar speed traps, police radar trucks and many communication systems.
The other main effect of the magnetic field at high frequencies is known as the induced current. This is the flow of a conductive current due to the mutual attraction and repulsion between the iron and the magnetic field. In most cases the induced current is formed in a thin metal sleeve about one micrometer in diameter surrounding the contacting wire. A small amount of current is induced between the two bodies when the wire is placed between the two conductors. It is caused by the motion of the conducting element.
One effect of the alternating current at high frequencies is what is called the magnetic damping. This happens when the induced alternating current interrupts the natural conductivity in a circuit. The damping occurs when the alternating current flows through an insulated path. A thin insulating layer may be present to prevent the alternating current from passing through conductors. This insulation also prevents the current from heating up the insulating material.
Another effect of the alternating current at high frequencies is what is called the peak voltage. This is the maximum voltage that can be induced into a circuit by the alternating current passing through it. The peak voltage is measured in volts, with one volt being the maximum voltage that can be induced in any two conductors that are parallel to one another.
The third effect of the magnetic field around the earth is what is called the acceleration loss. This is a loss due to the deformation of the earth’s surface caused by the presence of the alternating current. This deformation is caused by the movement of the earth’s polar magnets. The term for this acceleration loss is conductive acceleration. The effects of the acceleration loss are usually most evident near power lines.
The last effect of the high-frequency current is called the skin effect. This is also known as the Faraday effect, and is the loss of current in conductive systems due to the conductivity of the medium. This phenomenon takes place when the current is induced in a thin layer of a metal plate, which is then allowed to travel through a system of conductors. The current flow causes the formation of a strong Faraday field which results in a change in the conductivity of the medium. The skin effect then causes a loss of current in the vicinity of the Faraday field.